|Abnormal menstrual bleeding and pain are common reasons for presenting to a gynaecologist.Abnormal bleeding can occur when menstrual periods are not regular, when bleeding is heavier than normal, when bleeding lasts longer than normal, or when bleeding patterns change. Abnormal bleeding may be due to fibroids, polyps, abnormal lining of the womb, foreign body (IUCD), hormonal imbalance or cancer of the womb.Painful periods are a very common complaint and typically consists of crampy lower abdominal pains which start at the onset of menstruation. They are most usually harmless but may sometimes be due to other troublesome gynaecological causes. The most common form mainly affects the younger aged woman usually in her teens and is not associated with any pelvic problem of significance. The less common type of period pains occurs at a later age and can be due to a recognizable pelvic problem, such as endometriosis or pelvic infection.
Pelvic pain, on the other hand, is one of the most frequently misdiagnosed conditions in gynecology. Pelvic pain is often an elusive and debilitating condition. Pelvic pain may be due to pelvic infection or endometriosis. It is important a complete and thorough evaluation of the condition which includes a comprehensive history and gynaecological examination, possible blood tests and pelvic ultrasound scanning is performed. Treatment for pelvic pain must be individualized to the patient’s unique circumstances and may include medication, therapeutic options, alternative therapies or surgical intervention.
|Uterine fibroids are benign (non-cancerous) overgrowths of fibrous and smooth muscle tissue of the womb. They are very common in women of reproductive age and rarely cancerous. Most women with fibroids are asymptomatic but some may have heavy menstrual bleeding, cramps or abdominal discomfort. Treatment options include observation, medication for symptom control or surgery.
|Endometriosis is a condition where the tissues that line the inside of the womb (endometrium) are found outside the womb, in muscle layer of the womb (adenomyosis), ovary, bladder and bowel. Women may present with heavy bleeding or sometimes irregular periods, painful periods, pain during intercourse and lower abdominal pain in between periods. Endometriosis may also affect a woman’s ability to conceive. Treatment depends on symptoms and may involve medication or surgery depending on its severity.
|Ovarian cysts are fluid filled sacs. Most ovarian cysts are benign but some are cancerous, or may become cancerous over time. Ovarian cysts can vary in. They may be related to a woman’s periods (functional cysts) or may be due to pathology. Most ovarian cysts are do not cause symptoms. However some ovarian cysts may cause problems such as abdominal swelling, lower abdominal pain (constant or intermittent), pain during intercourse, irregular or heavy periods. Sometimes a cyst may bleed into itself, burst or even twist (torsion). This can cause a sudden severe pain in the lower abdomen. Treatment depends on symptoms, size and nature of the cyst and may involve medication, surgery or close observation depending on its severity.